Below is a list of conditions that patients commonly suffer with, together with a brief description of that condition. These descriptions may help you better understand a medical condition.


The inclusion of conditions in this section does not indicate that therapists on this site can necessarily treat that condition, and are for information purposes only.

If you need immediate medical advice or treatment please contact your GP, or attend your nearest A&E department for serious conditions.
  • Acid reflux

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a condition where acid from the stomach leaks out and up into the oesophagus.

  • Acne

    Acne is a skin condition that causes spots to develop on the skin, usually on the face, back and chest.

  • Addiction

    Addiction is a strong, uncontrollable need to take a substance or carry out a particular activity.

  • Agoraphobia

    Agoraphobia is a fear of being in situations where escape may be difficult or help unavailable.

  • Alcohol misuse

    Alcohol misuse is when you drink excessively.

  • Allergies

    An allergy is when the body has an adverse reaction to a particular food or substance in the environment.

  • Alopecia

    Alopecia is the medical term for hair loss.

  • Altitude sickness

    Altitude sickness is a condition that can occur when you climb to a high altitude too quickly.

  • Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form or dementia.

  • Amnesia

    Memory los happens when a person loses the ability to remember information they would normally be able to recall.

  • Anaemia

    Anaemia is where a lack of iron in the body leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells.

  • Anorexia nervosa

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious mental health condition in which people keep their body weight as low as posible.

  • Anosmia

    Anosmia is the medical term for loss of the sense of smell.

  • Anxiety

    Anxiety is a feeling of unease, worry or fear.

  • Arm or elbow pain

    Pain in the arm usually happens after an injury or fall, but can be a sign of an underlying condition.

  • Arthritis

    Arthritis causes pain and inflammation in a joint.

  • Asthma

    Asthma is a long-term condition that can cause coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and breathlessness.

  • Athlete’s foot

    Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection of the foot.

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

  • Autism

    Autism is a condition that affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour.

  • Back pain

    Back pain is a common problem that affects most people at some point in their life.

  • Bed sores

    Bed sores or pressure ulcers are an injury that breaks down the skin and underlying tissue.

  • Binge eating

    Binge eating is an eating disorder where a person feels compelled to overeat on a regular basis through regular binges.

  • Bladder infection

    Cystitis is inflammation of the blader usually caused by a bladder infection.

  • Bloating

    Bloating is where your tummy feels stretched, puffy and uncomfortable.

  • Blocked nose

    Catarrh is an excessive build-up of thick phlegm or mucus in the airway or cavity of the body.

  • Blood pressure (high)

    High blood pressure means that your blood pressure is continually higher than the recommended level.

  • Blood pressure (low)

    Low blood pressure means that your blood pressure is continually lower than the recommended level.

  • Blushing

    Blushing is the involuntary reddening of the face.

  • Body dysmorphia

    Body dysmorphic disorder is an anxiety disorder that causes a person to have a distorted view of how they look.

  • Body odour

    Body odour, or bromhidrosis, is the unpleasant smell that can occur when you sweat.

  • Boils

    Boils and carbuncles are red, painful lumps on the skin.

  • Bowel incontinence

    Bowel incontinence is an inability to control bowel movements resulting in involuntary soiling.

  • Brittle bones

    Osteoporosis is a condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more likely to break.

  • Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs causing them to become irritated and inflamed.

  • Bruising

    Bruises are blush or purple coloured patches that appear on the skin.

  • Bulimia

    Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder and mental health condition.

  • Bunion

    A bunion is a bony deformity of the joint at the base of the big toe.

  • Candidiasis

    Thrush is a common yeast infection.

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that causes a tingling sensation, numbness and sometimes pain in the hand and fingers.

  • Cartilage damage

    Cartilage damage is a common injury that often involves the knee joint.

  • Cataracts

    Cataracts are cloudy patches that develop in the lens of your eye and can cause blurred or misty vision.

  • Cellulitis

    Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of the skin and the underlying tissue.

  • Chest infection

    Chest infections are common, especially after having a cold or flu.

  • Chilblains

    Chilblains are small, itchy swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold temperatures.

  • Cholestorol (high)

    Cholestorol is a fatty substance that is vital for the normal functioning of the body, but high levels can have an affect on your health.

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome

    Chronic fatigue syndrome causes persistent exhaustion that doesn’t go away with sleep or rest.

  • Claustraphobia

    Claustraphobia is the irrational fear of confined spaces.

  • Coated or white tongue

    A coated or white tongue occurs when the surface is colonised by bacteria or fungi and dead cells become trapped.

  • Coeliac disease

    Coeliac disease is a digestive condition where a person has an adverse reaction to gluten.

  • Cold

    A cold is a mild viral infection of the nose, throat, sinuses and upper airways.

  • Colic

    Colic is the excessive, frequent crying in a baby who appears to be otherwise healthy and well fed.

  • Conjunctivitis

    Conjunctivitis is a condition that causes redness and inflammation of the thin layer of tissue that covers the front of the eye.

  • Constipation

    Constipation means that you are not passing stools regulary or are unable to completely empty your bowel.

  • Contact dermatitis

    Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the skin that occurs when you come into contact with a particular substance.

  • Corns and calluses

    Corns and calluses are areas of hard, thickened skin that develop when the skin is exposed to excessive pressure or friction.

  • Cough

    A cough is a reflex action to clear your airways of mucus and irritants such as dust or smoke.

  • Cradle cap

    Cradle cap is the greasy, yellow scaly patches that sometimes appear on the scalps of young babies.

  • Cramps (leg)

    Leg cramps are where the muscles in your leg suddenly become tight and painful.

  • Crohn’s disease

    Crohn’s disease is a long-term condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system.

  • Cystic fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition in which the lungs and digestive system become clogged with thick sticky mucus.

  • Dandruff

    Dandruff is a skin condition that causes dry white or grey flakes of dead skin to appear in the scalp or hair.

  • Dehydration

    Dehydration occurs when your body loses more fluid than you take in.

  • Dementia

    Dementia is not a single illness, but a group of symptoms caused by damage to the brain.

  • Depression

    Depression is an ongoing condition where you have lasting feelings of sadness, anxiety and hopelessness.

  • Diabetes

    Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high.

  • Diarrhoea

    Diarrhoea is passing looser or more frequent stools than is normal for you.

  • Diet

    Diet is the kinds of foods that you eat daily.

  • Dislocated shoulder

    A dislocated shoulder usually happens after a heavy fall onto the arm.

  • Dizziness

    Dizziness is a term to describe feeling lightheaded, off balance or feeling that your surroundings are spinning.

  • Drug misuse

    Drug misuse is when you take illegal drugs or when you take medicines in a way not recommended by your GP or the manufacturer.

  • Earache

    Earache is usually caused by a minor infection in the ear and can produce a sharp, dull or burning ear pain.

  • Earwax

    Earwax is a waxy material produced by sebacious glands inside the ear, too much of which can produce a blocked or painful ear.

  • Eating disorders

    Eating disorders are characterised by an abnormal attitude towards food that causes someone to change their eating habits and behaviour.

  • Eczema

    Eczema is a condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked.

  • End of life care

    End of life care refers to the support and assistance given to people towards the end of their life.

  • Endometriosis

    Endometriosis is a condition where tissue that behaves like the lining of the womb is found outside the womb.

  • Epilepsy

    Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated seizures.

  • Erectile dysfunction

    Erectile dysfunction, known and impotence, is the inability to get and maintain an erection.

  • Eye redness

    A red eye is commonly just a sign or conjunctivitis or another minor eye condition.

  • Fainting

    Fainting is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness that usually results in a fall.

  • Fatigue

    Fatigue is a feeling of tiredness and lack of energy.

  • Fertility

    Fertility is the ability to produce children and covers many issues for both men and women.

  • Fibroids

    Fibroids are non-cancerous tumours that grow in or around the womb.

  • Fibromyalgia

    Fibromyalgia is a long-term condition that causes pain all over the body.

  • Flat feet

    A person with flat feet has low arches or no arches at all.

  • Flattened head (baby)

    Babies sometimes develop a flattened head when they’re a few months old, usually from sleeping on their back.

  • Flatulence

    Flatulence is passing gas from the digestive system out of the back passage.

  • Food allergy

    A food allergy is when the body’s immune system reacts unusually to specific foods.

  • Foot pain

    Foot pain is a common problem and can have a wide number of causes.

  • Frozen shoulder

    Frozen shoulder is a condition that leads to pain and stiffness of the shoulder.

  • Gastric flu

    Gastroenteritis is a common condition where the stomach and intestines become inflamed.

  • General Health and Wellbeing

    General Health and Wellbeing covers a wide range of factors that make you feel well and healthy.

  • Glandular fever

    Glandular fever is a type of viral infection that mostly affects young adults.

  • Glue ear

    Glue ear is a common childhood condition in which the middle ear becomes filled with fluid.

  • Goitre

    A goitre is an abnormal swelling of the thyroid gland that causes a lump to form in the neck.

  • Gout

    Gout is a type of arthritis where crystals of sodium urate form inside and around joints.

  • Haemophilia

    Haemophilia is an inherited condition that affects the blood’s ability to clot.

  • Haemorrhoids (piles)

    Haemorrhoids, known as piles, are swellings that contain enlarged blood vessels that are found inside or around the anus.

  • Hamstring injury

    A hamstring injury is a strain or tear to the tendons or large muscles at the back of the thigh.

  • Hand tendon problems

    Hand tendon problems refer to injuries to the cords of tissues that connect muscles to bones in the hand.

  • Hay fever

    Hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen.

  • Headaches

    Headaches are common and are characterised by a constant or sharp ache or pain in the head.

  • Heart health

    Heart health refers to a range of issues that affect the healthy function of the heart.

  • Heartburn

    Heartburn is a burning chest pain or discomfort that occurs after eating.

  • Heat rash

    Heat rash is an itchy rash of small, raised spots that causes a stinging or prickling sensation on the skin.

  • Heavy periods

    Heavy periods is when a woman loses an excessive amount of blood during consecutive periods.

  • Heel pain

    Heel pain is a common foot condition that usually occurs when you place weight on your heel.

  • Hip fracture rehabilitation

    Hip fracture rehabilitation refers to treatments to help movement following cracks or breaks in the top of the thigh bone.

  • Hives

    Hives is a raised, itchy rash that appears on the skin.

  • Hypermobility

    Joint hypermobility means that some or all of a person’s joints have an unusually large amount of movement.

  • Hypertension

    Hypertension means continually high blood pressure.

  • Hypotension

    Hypotension means abnormally low blood pressure.

  • Incontinence

    Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine.

  • Indigestion

    Indigestion is pain or discomfort in your upper abdomen.

  • Infertility

    Infertility is when a couple cannot get pregnant despite having regular unprotected sex.

  • Inflammatory bowel disease

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a term used to describe two diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

  • Influenza (flu)

    Flu is a common infectious viral illness spread by coughs and sneezes.

  • Insomnia

    Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep for long enough to feel refreshed the next morning.

  • Irritable bowel syndrome

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, long-term condition of the digestive system that can cause stomach cramps, bloating and diarrhoea.

  • Itching

    Itching is an unpleasant sensation that compels a person to scratch the affected area.

  • Jaundice

    Jaundice is a term used to descibe the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.

  • Kidney stones

    Kidney stones are stone-like lumps that can develop in one or both or the kidneys.

  • Knee pain

    Knee pain is usually the result of overusing the knee or injuring it.

  • Labyrinthitis

    Labyrinthitis is an inner ear infection that affects your hearing and balance.

  • Lactose intolerance

    Lactose intolerance is a digestive problem where the body is unable to digest lactose, a sugar mainly found in milk and dairy products.

  • Leg ulcer

    A leg ulcer is a chronic sore on your leg or foot that takes more than four to six weeks to heal.

  • Locked neck

    Neck pain or a stiff neck is a common musculoskeletal problem.

  • Long term conditions

    A long term condition cannot normally be cured but its symptoms can usually be controlled and managed with treatment.

  • Lupus

    Lupus is a complex condition that affects many parts of the body and causes symptoms from mild to life-threatening.

  • Malaria

    Malaria is a serious tropical disease spread by mosquitos.

  • Malnutrition

    Malnutrition is a serious condition that occurs when a person’s diet doesn’t contain the right amount of nutrients.

  • ME

    Chronic fatigue syndrome, or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), causes persistent fatigue that doesn’t go away with sleep and rest.

  • Migraine

    Migraine is usually a severe headache felt as a throbbing pain at the front or side of the head.

  • Morning sickness

    Morning sickness is nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

  • Motion sickness

    Motion sickness describes a combination of symptoms such as dizziness, nausea and vomiting that occur when travelling.

  • Mouth ulcers

    Mouth ulcers are painful or oval sores that form in the mouth.

  • Multiple sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis affects nerves in the brain and spinal cord and causes symptoms including problems with muscle movement, balance and vision.

  • Nappy rash

    Nappy rash ocurs when a baby has sensitive skin which becomes red and sore if the nappy is not changed immediately.

  • Narcolepsy

    Narcolepsy is a rare, long-term brain disorder that causes a person to suddenly fall asleep at inappropriate times.

  • Nasal polyps

    Nasal polyps are swellings of the normal nasal lining that occur inside the nasal passages and sinuses.

  • Nausea

    Nausea is a sensation of unease or discomfort in the stomach that often comes before vomiting.

  • Nettle rash

    Nettle rash is a raised, itchy rash that appears on the skin.

  • Nightmares

    Nightmares occur from dream sleep (REM sleep) and can be linked to stress, trauma or an exisiting mental health condition.

  • Nutrition problems

    Nutritional problems deal with issues related to poor diet and nutritional intake.

  • Obesity

    Obesity describes someone who is very overweight with a lot of body fat.

  • Obsessive compulsive disorder

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition where a person has obsessive thoughts and compulsive activity.

  • Oral thrush

    Oral thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth.

  • Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis is a condition that causes the joints to become painful and stiff.

  • Overweight

    Overweight is when you are above a weight considered normal or desirable.

  • Palpitations

    Heart palpitations are heartbeats that suddenly become more noticeable.

  • Panic disorder

    Panic disorder is where you have recurring and regular panic attacks, often for no apparent reason.

  • Parkinson’s disease (support)

    Parkinson’s disease is a condition in which part of the brain becomes progressively damaged over many years.

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of the female upper genital tract, including the womb, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

  • Pelvic pain

    Pelvic pain is felt below your bellybutton and can come on suddenly and severely, or could be mild and last for months.

  • Periods

    Periods are part of the menstrual cycle when a woman bleeds from her vagina for a few days.

  • Phobias

    A phobia is an overwhelming and debilitating fear of an object, place, situation, feeling or animal.

  • Pins and needles

    Pins and needles is a pricking, burning, tingling or numbing sensation most commonly felt in the arms, legs, hands or feet.

  • Postnatal depression

    Postnatal depression is a type of depression some women experience after having a baby.

  • Pregnancy health and wellbeing

    Pregnancy health and wellbeing relates to all issues a woman experiences during pregnancy.

  • Premature ejaculation

    Premature ejaculation is where a man ejaculates too quickly during intercourse.

  • Premenstrual syndrome

    Premenstrual syndrome is the name given to the physical and behavioural symptoms that can occur two weeks before a woman’s period.

  • Prickly heat

    Prickly heat is an itchy rash of small, raised red spots that causes a stinging or prickling sensation on the skin.

  • Prolapsed disc

    A slipped or prolapsed disc occurs when one of the discs that sit between the bones of the spine is damaged and presses on the nerves.

  • Prostate disease

    Prostate disease is a general term used to describe a number of medical conditions that can affect the prostate gland.

  • Psoriasis

    Psoriasis is a skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales.

  • Repetitive strain injury

    Repetitive strain injury is a general term used to describe the pain felt in muscles, nerves and tendons caused by repetitive movement and overuse.

  • Respiratory tract infection

    Respiratory tract infections are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term condition that causes pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints.

  • Rhinitis (allergic)

    Allergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inside of the nose caused by an allergan, such as pollen, dust, mould or flakes of skin from certain animals.

  • Rhinitis (non-allergic)

    Non-allergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inside of the nose that is not caused by an allergy.

  • Scars

    A scar is a mark that is left on the skin after a wound or injury to the surface of the skin has healed.

  • Sciatica

    Sciatica is the name given to any sort of pain that is caused by irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve.

  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

    Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that has a seasonal pattern.

  • Shin splints

    Shin splints is a general term to describe exercise-induced pain in the front of the lower legs or shins.

  • Shoulder pain

    Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal related problem.

  • Shoulder tendon (trapped)

    Shoulder impingement syndrome is pain and often weakness when you raise your arm.

  • Shyness (social anxiety disorder)

    Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and overwhelming fear of social situations.

  • Sinus headache

    Sinus headaches are a type of headache caused by inflamed sinuses and are felt as a dull, throbbing pain the the upper face.

  • Sinusitis

    Sinuses is inflammation of the lining of the sinuses.

  • Sleepwalking

    Sleepwalking is when someone walks and carries out complex activities while not fully awake.

  • Slipped disc

    A slipped disc occurs when one of the discs between the bones of the spine is damaged and presses on the nerves.

  • Smelly feet (bromodosis)

    Having smelly feet is a common problem caused by a build-up of sweat.

  • Smoking (quitting)

    Quitting smoking is when you have a desire to stop smoking cigarettes.

  • Snoring

    Snoring is where a person makes a snorting or rattling noise when they breathe during sleep.

  • Sperm count (low)

    A low sperm count is defined as having less than 15 million sperm per millilitre of semen, often causing fertility problems.

  • Sports injuries

    Sports injuries cover a range of conditions that occur when you are injured whilst playing sport.

  • Sprains and strains

    Sprains and strains are common injuries that affect muscles and ligaments.

  • Stammering or stuttering

    Stammering or stuttering is a relatively common speech problem in childhood but can also persist into adulthood.

  • Stomach ache

    A stomach ache is a term often used to refer to cramps or dull ache in the tummy.

  • Stress

    Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.

  • Stroke (rehabilitation only)

    A stroke is a serious, life-threatening condition which requires immediate emergency treatment, but for which various options to help post treatment rehabilitation are available.

  • Stye

    A stye is a small, painful lump on the inside or outside of the eyelid.

  • Sweating (excessive)

    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition in which a person sweats excessively.

  • Tendonitis

    Tendonitis is the inflammation of the strong bands or cords of tissues that attach muscle to bone.

  • Tennis elbow

    Tennis elbow is a condition that causes pain around the outside of the elbow.

  • Tension-type headaches

    A tension-type headache is the most common type of headache and the one considered a normal, everyday heaache.

  • Thyroid (overactive)

    Overactive thyroid, or hyperthyroidism, occurs when there is too much thyroid hormone in the body.

  • Thyroid (underactive)

    Underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, means your thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones.

  • Thyroiditis

    Thyroidism is the term to describe inflammation of the thyroid gland.

  • Tinnitus

    Tinnitus is a term that describes any sound a person can hear from inside the body rather than from an outside source.

  • Tiredness

    Tiredness is a feeling of fatigue and lack of energy.

  • Tongue pain or soreness

    A sore of painful tongue is usually caused by something obvious and visible, but does have less obvious causes thay may need treating.

  • Ulcerative colitis

    Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition where the colon and rectum become inflamed.

  • Urinary tract infection

    Urinary tract infections are common and usually pass within a few days, but can be painful and uncomfortable.

  • Varicose eczema

    Varicose eczema is a long-term skin condition that affects the lower legs and is common in people with varicose veins.

  • Varicose veins

    Varicose veins are swollen and enlarged veins, usually blue or dark purple, that mainly occur on the legs.

  • Vertigo

    Vertigo is where you get the sensation that you, or the environment around you, is moving or spinning.

  • Warts and verrucas

    Warts are small lumps that often develop on the skin of the hands and feet.

  • Weight loss

    Weight loss is where you have a desire to reduce your body weight.

  • Whiplash

    Whiplash is a term that describes a neck injury caused by a sudden movement of the head forwards, backwards or sideways.